Emerging Technologies in
Breast Imaging and Mammography


Edited by
Jasjit S. Suri, Rangaraj Rangayyan, and Swamy Laxminarayan, USA/Canada

    2006, ca. 600 pages, Hardcover
ISBN: 1-58883-090-X

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today (after lung cancer) and is the most common cancer among women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), more than 1.2 million people will be diagnosed with breast cancer this year worldwide. The American Cancer Society estimated that in 2005 approximately 211,240 women in the United States were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (Stages I-IV). The chance of developing invasive breast cancer during a woman's lifetime is approximately 1 in 7 (13.4%). Another 58,490 women will be diagnosed with in situ breast cancer, a very early form of the disease. Though much less common, breast cancer also occurs in men. An estimated 1,690 cases were diagnosed in men in 2005. This year alone, the National Institutes of Health, the Centers of Disease Control (CDC), and the Department of Defense will collectively spend more than $850 million on breast cancer research. Today the literature of breast imaging technologies is clouded with uncertainty. There is no perfect method to tell which technique performs better or the best. It is also not clear how well the new progressing technologies are going to play a role in early breast cancer detection due partly because the emerging technologies have not established a clear strategy to achieve superior instrumentation for screening and diagnosis and for improving the sensitivity and specificity of the imaging or computer-aided diagnosis systems.
This book is the first of its kind to address the issues on cutting edge emerging technologies for breast imaging and mammography. The book covers all facets of nature to image the breast, may it be light (optical), sound (ultrasound), magnetism, attenuation, microwave, electrical impedance, fusion of these modalities, and some of the very hot topics on Computer Aided Detection. The novelty of this book is due to the contributions of pioneers around the world. This book offers a very comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on the state of breast cancer screening instrumentation, diagnosis, and therapy and recommends steps for developing the most reliable breast cancer detection and therapeutic methods possible. This volume, for the first time, covers numerous topics on how to attack breast cancer from almost all different angles of medical imaging modalities such as X-ray, CT, MR, PET, SPECT, nuclear, ultrasound, microwave, optical, electrical impedance, thermal, infrared, and its fusion. Another novelty of this book is modeling breast cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy in 3-D. The book begins with highlights on different kinds of breast cancer and its pathology and then introduces the engineers, scientists, innovators, and strategists to put their algorithms and designs for solving the number one killer problem in women’s health imaging.
The book is divided into six parts: Part-I is dedicated to X-ray mammography and its applications, including modeling X-ray spectra, phase-contrast, and stereoscopic mammography. Part-II is dedicated to 3-D breast imaging and tomosynthesis, one of the most cutting-edge topics from pioneers. Part-III is dedicated to breast imaging using ultrasound and its applications. This involves detection, elastography, vibro-acoustography, breast biopsy, and breast cancer therapy using HIFU. Part-IV concentrates on some emerging techniques such as optical, microwave, electrical impedance tomography, nuclear, and infrared and thermal imaging techniques. Part-V is dedicated to some of the advanced computer-aided detection techniques applied to architectural distortion. Finally, the book concludes, in Part-VI, on the fusion of various modalities and some future predictions in the breast imaging area.

PART-I: X-Ray Mammography and Their Applications
  • General Morphology of Benign and Malignant Breast Lesions: Old Parameters in New Perspectives—Tibor Tot, Uppsala University, Sweden.
  • Analytical and Monte Carlo X-ray Spectra Modeling in Mammography—Mohammad Reza Ay and Habib Zaidi, Geneva University Hospital, Switzerland.
  • Three-dimensional Representation of Breast Cancer Using X-ray Imaging—Maria Kallergi, Anand Manohar, and Nataliya Kovalchuk, University of South Florida, USA.
  • Phase-Contrast Mammography—Chika Honda and Hiromu Ohara, Konica Minolta M&G Inc., Japan; Satoru Matsuo and Toyohiko Tanaka, Shiga University of Medical Science, Japan.
PART-II: 3-D Breast Imaging and Tomosynthesis
  • Digital Breast Tomosynthesis—Tao Wu, Richard H. Moore, Elizabeth A. Rafferty, Daniel B. Kopans,Massachusetts General Hospital, USA.
  • Digital Breast Tomosynthesis in Diagnostic Mammography—Mari Varjonen, Planmed Oy, Finland; Martti Pamilo and Leena Raulisto, University of Helsinki, Finland.
  • Mammography Tomosynthesis Using a Coupled Source and Detector in a C-Arm Configuration—Joseph T. Rakowski, Medical College of Ohio, USA.
PART-III: Ultrasound Breast Imaging and Its Applications
  • Advanced Ultrasonic Imaging Techniques for Breast Cancer Research—Michael Insana and Michael Oelze, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
  • A Combined 3-D Ultrasound and Stereotactic Mammography: Guided Breast Biopsy System—Aaron Fenster, Robarts Research Labs., Canada; Kathleen Surry, London Regional Cancer Program, Canada; Wendy Smith, Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Canada; Donal B. Downey Royal Inland Hospital, Canada .
  • Noninvasive High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound in the Treatment of Patients with Breast Cancer—Feng Wu, Chongqing University, China.
  • Breast Vibro-acoustography—Mostafa Fatemi, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, USA.
  • 3-D Surgical Navigation Using 3-D Ultrasound.
  • Elastography for Breast Imaging—Michael I. Migaand and Jao J. Ou, Vanderbilt University, USA; Marvin V. Doyley and Keith D. Paulson,Dartmouth College, USA; Jeffrey C. Bamber, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden, UK; John B. Weaver, Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, USA.
PART-IV: Optical, Microwave, EIT, Nuclear, and Infrared Techniques
  • The Twente Photoacoustic Mammoscope: Toward Clinical Trials—Srirang Manohar, Johan C. G. van Hespen, Wiendelt Steenbergen, Ton G. van Leeuwen, University of Twente, The Netherlands; Aleksey Kharin and Cecile de Vos, Medisch Spectrum Twente Hospital, The Netherlands.
  • Breast Imaging Using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT)—Gary A. Ybarra and Qing H. Liu, Duke University, USA.
  • Microwave Breast Imaging—Gary A. Ybarra and Qing H. Liu, Duke University, USA.
  • Optical Tomography with Ultrasound Localization for Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment Monitoring—Quing Zhu, University of Connecticut, USA.
  • Diffuse Optical Tomography of the Breast —Regine Choe and Arjun G. Yodh, University of Pennsylvania, USA.
  • Nuclear Breast imaging—Mitali More, General Electric (GE), India;Mark B. Williams, University of Virginia, USA.
  • Modeling of Female Breast Tumor Detection with Dynamic/Active Approach: A Thermal Analysis —E.Y.K. Ng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; N. M. Sudharsan, Anna University India.
  • ANN-based Classification of Breast Cancer with Discrete Temperature Screening: Facts and Myths—E. Y. K. Ng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; M. S. Tan, SIM University, Singapore; Susan Lockwood, Lifeline Biotechnologies, USA; Louis G. Keith, Northwestern University, USA.
PART-V: Advanced Breast CAD Techniques
  • Tele-Mammography: A Novel Technological Approach in Mammography Diagnosis—Jorge Roberto Vélez and Andrés Adolfo Navarro Newhall, Colombian Telemedicine Centre, Colombia; Patricia Villa, Salud Internacional EIRL, Peru; Gregorio Bernabé Garcia D., DITEC-Universidad de Murcia, Spain; Luis Eduardo Múnera S., Universidad ICESI, Colombia; Leonardo A. Castaño and Juan M. Martínez V., Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Colombia.
  • A Biopsy Analysis Support System for the Detection and Classification of Breast Cancer Nuclei—C. S. Pattichis, F. Schnorrenberg, N. Tsapatsoulis, and C. N. Schizas, University of Cyrpus; M. S. Pattichis, University of New Mexico, USA; K. Kyriacou, Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics, Cyprus.
  • Automated Detection for Architectural Distortion with Retraction and Spiculation on Mammograms–Tomoko Matsubara, Nagoya Bunri University, Japan; Takeshi Hara, Gifu University, Japan.
  • Characterization and Detection of Architectural Distortion in Mammograms Using Orientation Fields and Phase Portraits–Fábio J. Ayres and Rangaraj M. Rangayyan, University of Calgary, Canada.
PART-VI: Fusion-Based Techniques
  • 2-D/3-D Registration of X-ray Mammograms and MR Volumes of the Female Breast—N. V. Ruiter, T. O. Muller, R. Stotzka, and H. Gemmeke, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Data Processing and Electronics, Germany.
  • On the Measurement of the DQE in Digital Mammography—Jasjit S. Suri, Yujun Guo, Cheng-Chang Lu, Kent State University, USA; Hans Roehrig and Jiahua Fan, University of Arizona, USA.; N. V. Ruiter, T. O. Muller, R. Stotzka, and H. Gemmeke, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Data Processing and Electronics, Germany; E. Y-K. Ng, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Sreeram Dhurjaty, Eastman Kodak Company, USA.
This book is valuable for academic and research libraries, medical students, medical doctors, scientists, college and university professors, research professionals, medical schools, and R&D research laboratories. The book is intended for audience working in the fields of medical sciences, health sciences, molecular biopharmaceutics, biomedical imaging technology, mammography detectors technology, medical biotechnology, pharmaceutics, biological sciences, and materials science.

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