Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology

 Vol. 1, No. 4 (December 2005)


What is next for Nanotechnology?
Vinod Labhasetwar

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Computer-Aided Molecular Modeling: A Predictive Approach in the Design of Nanoparticulate Drug Delivery System
Padma V. Devarajan, Ganeshchandra S. Sonavane, and Mukesh Doble

The present study demonstrated Computer-Aided Molecular Modeling as a predictive approach in the design of polymeric nanoparticulate drug delivery systems.

Pages 375–383    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Fabrication of Microfluidically-Accessible Planar Nanoholes on Elastomeric Substrates
Nicholas L. Stucky, Chihchen Chen, T. Fettah Kosar, and Albert Folch

Here we present two novel fabrication techniques for creating poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) devices with an array of planar nanoholes designed for multiple, simultaneous single-cell probing. Each nanohole can be addressed by an underlying microchannel network, which provides nanometer-scale precision and favorable optical properties while allowing for low fluidic and electrical resistance.

Pages 384–391    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Efficient DNA and Peptide Delivery by Functionalized Chitosan-Coated Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes
Arun Kumar, Prasanna K. Jena, Sumita Behera, Richard F. Lockey, and Shyam Mohapatra

Functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes were complexed with nanochitosan and used for the delivery of DNA encoding EGFP reporter protein and FITC-labeled peptide. Cultured lung epithelial cells and bronchoalveolar lavage cells of mice administered with f-SWCNT show enhanced delivery of peptide and DNA as compared to chitosan alone.

Pages 392–396    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Quantifying the Influence of Surface Coatings on Quantum Dot Uptake in Cells
Emmanuel Chang, William W. Yu, Vicki L. Colvin, and Rebekah Drezek

Photoluminescence is used to quantify quantum dot uptake by SK-BR-3 human breast carcinoma cells as a function of quantum dot surface coating, concentration, and incubation time. Results demonstrated significant differences in nanoparticle uptake based on surface coatings, concentration, and incubation time.

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Cell Culture on a Carbon Nanotube Scaffold
Naofumi Aoki, Atsuro Yokoyama, Yoshinobu Nodasaka, Tsukasa Akasaka, Motohiro Uo,
Yoshinori Sato, Kazuyuki Tohji, and Fumio Watari

Carbon nanotubes were applied for a scaffold for cell culture. Cells on the carbon nanotube scaffold showed excellent proliferation with extension of cell morphology in all directions.

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Tc99m Doped Nano-Hematite for Lung Photoscintigraphy
Prashant D. Sawant and Smita P. Sawant

30 nm α-Fe2O3 particles prepared by the forced hydrolysis method, tagged with Tc99m and used a nano-phosphor material to image lung using the lung photoscintigraphy method. Nanosize α-Fe2O3 particles have many advantages over other phosphor materials and useful in diagnosis of lung diseases.

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Plasminogen Activator Loaded Magnetic Carriers for Stroke Therapy: A Mass Balance Feasibility Evaluation
Yumei Xie, Michael D. Kaminski, Sandra G. Guy, and Axel J. Rosengart

We are developing a system of clot lysis for stroke treatment which employs tissue plasminogen activator loaded magnetic carriers. In this paper we have theoretically evaluated the feasibility of this therapy. Preliminary experiment results are also discussed.

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Amperometric Detection of Glucose Using a Modified Nitrogen-Doped Nanocrystalline Diamond Electrode
Zhenqing Xu, Ashok Kumar, and Arun Kumar

A nanocrystalline diamond electrode is functionalized with carboxyl group to detect glucose concentration electrochemically. A linear relationship between the glucose concentration and the electrode’s response current has been obtained. The sensor shows pretty good long term stability and reproducibility.

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The Volume Property: Hydration in Biosystems
Donald W. Kupke and Luis A. Marky

In the simplest case of ion pair formation, release of constricted water molecules increases the volume of the system.

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Nanoscale Analysis of Spatial Organization of Anisotropic Minerals Stacks in Enamel
Prashant D. Sawant

The position sensitive 2D-SAXS and radiography revealed the nanoscale anisotropic arrangement of mineral particles in the enamel. These results are useful to understand mineralization/demineralization/ remineralization processes in the enamel and hence will be helpful to cure many oral diseases in future.

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Table of Contents to Volume 1, Number 1–4, 2005

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Author Index to Volume 1, Number 1–4, 2005

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Subject Index to Volume 1, Number 1–4, 2005

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 Vol. 1, No. 3 (September 2005)


Pharmaceutical Aspects of Polymeric Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery
V. Bhardwaj, S. Hariharan, I. Bala, A. Lamprecht, N. Kumar, R. Panchagnula, and M. N. V. Ravi Kumar

This review discusses the factors affecting the preparation of nanoparticles, issues related to their stability and drug release, various characterization and tracer techniques to assess their properties and biological fate, applicability of biopharmaceutic classification system (BCS), and the various applications in oral drug delivery.

Pages 235–258    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds: Production, Characterization,
and Applications for Tissue Engineering and Drug Delivery
Wan-Ju Li, Robert L. Mauck, and Rocky S. Tuan

This review has provided a concise and contemporary overview of the research progress on the application of the electrospinning technology to produce three-dimensional, nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Pages 259–275    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

DNA Biosensors Based on Metal Nanoparticles
Yuzhi Fang, Ying Xu, and Pingang He

This review discusses the recent advances in DNA biosensing techniques based on metal nanoparticles. Different transduction strategies have been introduced, including optical, electrochemical, electrical and magnetic detection methods.

Pages 276–285    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


Nanoparticle Multilayers: Surface Modification for Cell Attachment and Growth
Dinesh S. Kommireddy, Izumi Ichinose, Yuri M. Lvov, and David K. Mills

Scheme for the formation of nano-engineered, ultrathin, multicomponent films using layer-by-layer assembly (left) and the expression of the type I collagen, a marker for the phenotype of human dermal fibroblasts on a montmorillinoite coated glass substrate (right).

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Quantitative Analysis of Bacterial Aggregation Mediated by Bioactive Nanoparticles
Pengju G. Luo, Tzuen-Rong Tzeng, Liangwei Qu, Yi Lin, Emily Caldwell,
Robert A. Latour, Fred Stutzenberger, and Ya-Ping Sun

Presented here are results that quantify the magnitude of cell aggregation mediated by the mannose-tethered nanoparticles. The colony forming unit assay suggested a reduction of up to 99%, consistent with the fluorescence microscopy images showing large bacterial cell clumps of hundreds to thousands of bacteria. The potential applications of the bioactive nanoparticles as antibacterial agents are discussed.

Pages 291–296    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Increased Skeletal Muscle Cell and Osteoblast Numbers on Hydrothermally-Treated
Nano-Hydroxyapatite/Collagen Type I Composites for Entheses Applications
Venu Perla, Michiko Sato, and Thomas J. Webster

This manuscript presents data which supports the use of hydrothermally-treated nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen type I composites for entheses (regions where orthopedic soft tissue attaches to bone) applications. Specifically, increased titanium implant surface coverage and functions of skeletal muscle cells and osteoblasts were measured on hydrothermally-treated nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen type I composites. A–C = non-hydrothermally-treated; D–F = hydrothermally-treated; A and D = non-aquasonicated; B–F aquasonicated. Best Ti surface coverage on E and F (hydrothermally-treated aquasonicated nano HA).

Pages 297–305    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Mechanisms of Increased Chondrocyte Adhesion on Nanometer Surface Featured NaOH-Treated PLGA
Grace E. Park and Thomas J. Webster

Results of this study provided a mechanism for increased chondrocyte function on nanometer surface featured NaOH-treated PLGA. Specifically, results showed increased fibronectin adsorption, better infiltration of fibronectin and vitronectin, and greater fibronectin and vitronectin spreading on NaOH-treated PLGA (left) compared to non-treated PLGA (right); all of these initial protein events may help explain better chondrocyte function on NaOH-treated PLGA. Bar = 1 μm.

Pages 306–312    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Nano and Micro Structured Substrates for Neuronal Cell Development
Furqan Haq, Yeswanth L. Rao, Charles Keith, Yiping Zhao, and Guigen Zhang

Cells cultured on nano-substrates (A) developed short and few neurites with a relatively high density, and cells on micro-substrates (B) developed long and multiple neurites. Substrates with topographical features at the nanometer or micrometer scales may be used to control cell growth.

Pages 313–319    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Biosensors Based on Carbon Nanotubes/Nickel Hexacyanoferrate/Glucose Oxidase Nanocomposites
Xiaoli Cui, Guodong Liu, and Yuehe Lin

A novel glucose biosensor based on carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/nickel hexacyanoferrate (NiHCF) nanocomposites was developed in this work. The high sensitivity of the biosensor is due to the high surface area of the CNTs and excellent electrocatalytic activity of the NiHCF nanoparticles.

Pages 320–327    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Gold Nanoparticles do not Affect the Global Transcriptional Program of
Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A DNA-Microarray Analysis
R. J. Esther, R. Bhattacharya, M. Ruan, M. E. Bolander, D. Mukhopadhyay, G. Sarkar, and P. Mukherjee

Treatment of HUVECs with gold nanoparticles does not change their global transcriptional program. The figure shows no change in gene expression pattern between gold nanoparticles treated and non-treated group with excellent correlation coefficients. This finding is important for future clinical applications of gold nanoparticles.

Pages 328–335    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Nanoelectrodes Fabricated from Electron Beam Deposited Carbon
as Potential Electrochemical Neuronal Probes
Yen Wei, Houping Yin, Xiaohua Cao, Patrick Ndungu, Guoliang Yang,
Jean-Claude Bradley, Kambiz Pourrezaei, Peter I. Lelkes, and Joe Z. Tsien

Nanoscale electrodes with dimensions as small as 50 nm in diameter and 1–2 micrometers in length have been fabricated using electron beam deposition on the tips of microelectrodes. The nanoprobe was coated with insulating polymer and re-opened at the extreme tip. The nanoprobes were demonstrated to be capable of recording neuronal signals.

Pages 336–340    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Control of Substrate Selectivity Through Complexation and Release of
α-Chymotrypsin from Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces
Joseph M. Simard, Beth Szymanski, Belma Erdogan, and Vincent M. Rotello

Release of α-chymotrypsin (ChT) from mercaptoundecanoic acid functionalized gold nanoparticle with a modified structure in comparison to native ChT. Released ChT has altered substrate selectivity.

Pages 341–344    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Nanostructure Formation from a Poly(glutamic acid)-based Helix-Loop-Helix Copolymer
and its Stable Encapsulation of Antitumor Reagent
Masazo Niwa, Keiji Sugamoto, Tomoyuki Koga, and Nobuyuki Higashi

A poly(glutamic acid)-based triblock peptide with helix-loop-helix conformation was freshly prepared. The resultant peptide showed interesting conformational and self-assembling properties in water.

Pages 345–351    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Cytotoxicity on V79 and HL60 Cell Lines by Thiolated-β-Cyclodextrin-Au/Violacein Nanoparticles
Iara F. Gimenez, Maristela C. Anazetti, Patricia S. Melo, Marcela Haun,
Marcelo M. M. De Azevedo, Nelson Durán, and Oswaldo L. Alves

This research is involved with the use of molecular recognition properties from cyclodextrin-alkylthiol derivatives capping gold nanoparticles to complex the antitumor violacein and its cytotoxic properties on HL60 and V79 cells lines compared with violacein free form.

Pages 352–358    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Activation of Human Monocytes and Mouse Splenocytes by Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Kazuto Kiura, Yoshinori Sato, Motoaki Yasuda, Bunshi Fugetsu,
Fumio Watari, Kazuyuki Tohji, and Ken-ichiro Shibata

This study was designed to investigate the biological toxicities of single-walled carbon nanotubes and hat-stacked carbon nanofibers that possess different specific surface areas and graphene structures. These materials activated both human monocytic cells and mouse spleen cells to produce TNF-α, although the apparent activity was significantly lower than that of microbial lipopeptide and lipopolysaccharide. Thus, these materials were recognized as non-self antigens that could trigger an immune responses.

Pages 359–364    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Photocatalytic Killing of Pathogenic Bacterial Cells Using Nanosize Fe2O3 and Carbon Nanotubes
Maheshwar Sharon, Bonamali Pal, and D. V. Kamat

A photocatalytic technique using visible light and carbon nanotubes as well as nanosize Fe2O3 powder have been applied to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria present in water. It is suggested that after careful design this system can be used to make drinking water free from pathogenic bacteria.

Pages 365–368    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Beads Screening Method of Inhibitors to Amyloid-ß-Protein Aggregation
Shun Inaba, Tomoko Okada, Masaru Eguchi, Takeo Konakahara, and Masato Kodaka

A method for screening inhibitors against aggregation of amyloid-ß-protein (Aß) is created, in which coagulation of beads through molecular recognition of Aß is applied.

Pages 369–373    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

 Vol. 1, No. 2 (June 2005)


Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications
Jonathan B. Chiu, Yen Kim Luu, Dufei Fang, Benjamin S. Hsiao, Benjamin Chu, and Michael Hadjiargyrou

This review outlines the current state-of-the-art fabrication of nanofibrous scaffolds via electrospinning and electroblowing technologies, as well as describing recent advances made in the production, testing, and potential clinical applications of electrospun scaffolds in tissue engineering and drug/gene delivery.

Pages 115–132    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes: Towards the Delivery of Therapeutic Molecules
Giorgia Pastorin, Kostas Kostarelos, Maurizio Prato, and Alberto Bianco

This review is focused on the potential applications of functionalized carbon nanotubes as viable delivery devices. In particular, the recent integration of carbon nanotubes into biological systems has suggested their potential employment in the delivery of therapeutic molecules, such as drugs, antigens and genes.

Pages 133–142    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


Sol–Gel-Coated Poly(methyl methacrylate) as a Substrate for
Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors
Shu-Fang Cheng, Lai-Kwan Chau, and Kuei-Chen Pao

Coating of an amine-functionalized sol–gel silica film on a chemically modified PMMA surface enables the formation of a self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles for localized surface plasmon resonance biosensing.

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Chitosan-Alginate Porous Scaffolds Reinforced by Hydroxyapatite Nano- and
Micro-Particles—Structural, Mechanical, and Biological Properties
Hassna R. Ramay, Zhensheng Li, Enoch Shum, and Miqin Zhang

Chitosan-alginate scaffolds incorporated with hydroxyapatite micro- or nanoparticles (left) were developed that exhibited good mechanical and biological properties. Osteoblast cells attached and proliferated well on the chitosan-alginate scaffold (right).

Pages 151–160    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Arrays of Microfluidically-Addressable Nanoholes
T. Fettah Kosar, Chihchen Chen, Nicholas L. Stucky, and Albert Folch

We present a batch-fabricated, biocompatible and optically transparent lab-on-a-chip device that incorporates a planar array of nanoholes that can be used for electrical or pharmacological interrogation of large numbers of cells as well as for precise biochemical delivery to cells. The nanoholes are defined in a silicon nitride layer using electron beam lithography and chemical etching techniques. Each nanohole in the array is microfluidically accessible and individually addressable from both sides.

Pages 161–167    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Enhanced Intracellular Uptake of Indocyanine Green by
Polymeric Nanoparticulate Delivery Systems
Vishal Saxena, Mostafa Sadoqi, Jun Shao, and Sunil Kumar

The present study demonstrated that ICG-loaded PLGA nanoparticles enhanced (around 100 times) the intracellular uptake of ICG in comparison to ICG solution, especially at low ICG concentrations in B16-F10 and C-33A cancer cell lines.

Pages 168–175    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Folate-Linked Nanoparticles Formed with DNA Complexes in Sodium Chloride
Solution Enhance Transfection Efficiency
Yoshiyuki Hattori, Hajime Kubo, Kunio Higashiyama, and Yoshie Maitani

Folate-linked nanoparticles based on cholesteryl-3β-carboxyamidoethylene-N-hydroxylamine (OH-Chol) delivered DNA with high transfection efficiency and selectivity into nasopharyngeal KB cells by forming a nanoplex in NaCl solution, which influenced the size of the nanoplex and dissociation of DNA. Schematic structure of the folate-linked nanoparticles composed of folate-polyethyleneglycol-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine (f-PEG2000-DSPE), OH-Chol and Tween 80.

Pages 176–184    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Wet-Chemical Patterned PZT Force Sensors for Minimally Invasive Surgical Tools
S. Ezhilvalavan and Victor D. Samper

This paper describes a new approach for patterning PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) films that could be used as micro force sensors for minimal invasive surgical tools. Surface morphologies of PZT film after wet chemical etching; (a) Optical profiler and (b) AFM. The microstructure consists of round and elongated grains with considerable volume fractions of nano-grains, and the grain sizes are in the range of 40 to 120 nm. The patterned PZT films exhibited good ferro-electric properties and reliable electrical characteristics.

Pages 185–189    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Micelles from Poly(ethylene glycol)–Phosphatidyl Ethanolamine Conjugates
(Peg-Pe) as Pharmaceutical Nanocarriers for Poorly Soluble Drug Camptothecin
Li Mu, Adrian Chrastina, Tatyana Levchenko, and Vladimir P. Torchilin

Polymeric micelles prepared from PEG-PE conjugates may serve as pharmaceutical nanocarriers for poorly water soluble drugs, which can be solubilized in the micelle hydrophobic core. Poorly soluble camptothecin (CPT) was solubilized in PEG-PE micelles with the formation of stable particles with the size of ca. 15 nm. The cytotoxicity of CPT-loaded PEG-PE micelles towards cancer cells in vitro was significantly higher compared to the free drug.

Pages 190–195    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Conjugation of Monodisperse Chitosan-Bound Magnetic Nanocarrier with
Epirubicin for Targeted Cancer Therapy
Yang-Chuang Chang, Dar-Bin Shieh, Chien-Huei Chang, and Dong-Hwang Chen

The monodisperse chitosan-bound magnetic nano-carrier was developed and conjugated with the anti-cancer drug epirubicin. In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation revealed that the novel product has a great potential in biomedical applications.

Pages 196–201    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Electrochemical DNA Biosensor Based on a
Thionine–Carbon Nanotube Modified Electrode
Ying Xu, Lin Yang, Pingang He, and Yuzhi Fang

An effective CNTs-based electrode is prepared using thionine-MWNTs modification. The amino groups assembled onto MWNTs sidewalls covalently link phosphate groups terminated DNA probes. The modification of thionine-MWNTs onto glassy carbon electrode improves the detection limit significantly when daunomycin is used as the intercalator to indicate the hybridization process.

Pages 202–207    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Electron Spin Resonance Study on the Dynamics of Polymeric Nanocapsules
Andrea Rübe and Karsten Mäder

This electron spin resonance study provides information about the nanoenvironment of the nanocapsules, the accessibility of the incorporated spin probes to the aqueous phase and the kinetics of distribution phenomena in a non-invasive manner in real time.

Pages 208–213    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Loading of 5-Fluorouracil to Poly(ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate) Nanoparticles
with a Magnetic Core
J. L. Arias, V. Gallardo, S. A. Gómez-Lopera, and A. V. Delgado

In this paper we describe a detailed investigation of the loading of the antitumour drug 5-fluorouracil on composite particles consisting of a magnetic core and a biodegradable polymer shell.

Pages 214–223    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


Gold Nanoparticles Bearing Functional Anti-Cancer Drug and
Anti-Angiogenic Agent: A “2 in 1” System with Potential Application
in Cancer Therapeutics
Priyabrata Mukherjee, Resham Bhattacharya, and Debabrata Mukhopadhyay

This paper reports a functional “2 in 1” system where activity of VEGF antibody and gemcitabine is retained after attachment to gold nanoparticles. The nanocomposite inhibits VEGF165 induced calcium release from HUVECs as well as inhibits the proliferation of 786-O renal cancer cells. This formulation represents a unique example of a nano-biocomposite with potential application of gold nanoparticles in cancer therapeutics.

Pages 224–228    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Targeting Breast Cancer Cells and Their Metastases
Through Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone (LHRH) Receptors
Using Magnetic Nanoparticles
Carola Leuschner, Challa S. S. R. Kumar, William Hansel, and Josef Hormes

Primary Tumors and metastases from human breast cancer xenografts are specifically targeted by ligand conjugated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, incorporated into the cells and accumulate at high concentrations in metastases of the lungs.

Pages 229–233    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


 Vol. 1, No. 1 (March 2005)


Welcome to Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology!
Challa S. S. R. Kumar

Pages 1–2    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


Applications of Carbon Nanotubes in Biotechnology and Biomedicine
Elena Bekyarova, Yingchun Ni, Erik B. Malarkey, Vedrana Montana, Jared L. McWilliams, Robert C. Haddon, and Vladimir Parpura

This review discusses the properties, purification and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes, and underlines the scope for their utilization in biosensors, assembly of functional structures and devices, scanning probe microscopy, as carriers for the delivery of molecular probes into mammalian cells, and as substrates for neuronal growth.

Pages 3–17    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

A Review of Nanotechnology for the Development of Better Orthopedic Implants
Grace E. Park and Thomas J. Webster

This review covers recent advancements made at the intersection of nanotechnology and orthopedic implants. Nanomaterials studied include ceramics, metals, polymers, and composites thereof. A composite of nanophase titania and poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (left) with enhanced bone cell infiltration needed for implant success (right—cell are red) are pictured here. In all material cases, bone cell function is enhanced on nanophase materials.

Pages 18–29    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article


Sensing Interactions between Vimentin Antibodies and Antigens for Early Cancer Detection
C. Milburn, J. Zhou, O. Bravo, C. Kumar, and W. O. Soboyejo

This paper examines the use of polysilicon microcantilevers in the bioassay of Vimentin antigens that are present in human-osteosarcoma (HOS) cells. The developed method has potential application in early cancer detection that is extremely critical to improve cancer treatment.

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Nanoscale Modification of Supported Lipid Membranes: Synergetic
Effect of Phospholipase D and Viral Fusion Peptides
Karim El Kirat, Laurence Lins, Robert Brasseur, and Yves F. Dufrêne

Nanomodification of a DOPC/DPPC bilayer (left; 10 µm × 10 µm AFM image) with an AFM tip functionalized with phospholipase D dramatically enhances subsequent interaction with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) fusion peptide: at short incubation time, the SIV peptide induces a thickness reduction of the DPPC domains, while at longer incubation time depressed domains transforms into elevated striated domains (right image).

Pages 39–46    Abstract    Full Text - PDF    Purchase Article

Extra-/Intracellular Biosynthesis of Gold Nanoparticles
by an Alkalotolerant Fungus, Trichothecium sp.
Absar Ahmad, Satyajyoti Senapati, M. Islam Khan, Rajiv Kumar, and Murali Sastry

The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles of variable shape using the fungus Trichothecium sp. is described: reacting aqueous gold ions with the fungus under stationery (A)/shaking (B) conditions results in extracellular/intracellular gold nanoparticles.

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Surface Engineering of Nano-Fibrous Poly(l-Lactic Acid) Scaffolds via
Self-Assembly Technique for Bone Tissue Engineering
Xiaohua Liu, Laura Smith, Guobao Wei, Youngjun Won, and Peter X. Ma

Nano-fibrous PLLA materials have been developed to mimic collagen in morphology. Gelatin was immobilized onto the pore surface of macro-porous and nano-fibrous PLLA scaffolds via a layer-by-layer technique to impart the chemical composition of collagen (left: XPS spectra). The surface modification significantly enhanced osteoblast adhesion and proliferation in the scaffolds (right: histology).

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Galactosylated Polymeric Nanoparticles: Synthesis and
Adhesion Interactions with Escherichia coli
Liangwei Qu, Lingrong Gu, Huaping Li, Shelby Taylor, Tara Elkin, Pengju G. Luo, Tzuen-Rong J. Tzeng, Xiuping Jiang, Robert A. Latour, Fred Stutzenberger, Alicia Williams, and Ya-Ping Sun

Polymeric nanoparticles of a polystyrene core and polyethylene glycol corona were prepared via dispersion copolymerization of styrene with a specifically synthesized macromonomer. The particle surface tethers were terminated covalently with derivatized galactose moieties. Bioactivities of the nanoparticles were evaluated and demonstrated by their significant adhesion interactions with several Escherichia coli strains.

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Anodized Ti and Ti6Al4wV Possessing Nanometer Surface Features Enhances Osteoblast Adhesion
Chang Yao, Venu Perla, Janice L. McKenzie, Elliot B. Slamovich, and Thomas J. Webster

SEM images of the surfaces of Ti6Al4V before anodization (A) and after anodization (B). Bar = 1 µm (30,000X). Results of this study showed that osteoblast adhesion is enhanced on anodized Ti6Al4V and Ti.

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Sustained Proangiogenic Activity of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
Following Encapsulation in Nanoparticles
Jasmine Davda and Vinod Labhasetwar

Vascular endothelial growth factor encapsulated in biodegradable nanoparticles (pictured on left) demonstrated greater and more sustained effect than the protein used as a solution on endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and morphogenesis (pictured on right), the key elements of angiogenesis.

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Increased Osteoblast Functions on (poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid)
with Highly Dispersed Nanophase Titania
Huinan Liu, Elliott B. Slamovich, and Thomas J. Webster

SEM images of nanophase titania/PLGA composites not sonicated (A) and sonicated at 166.25 W for 10 minutes (B). Bar = 1 µm. Results of this study showed that osteoblast functions are enhanced on nanophase titania well dispersed in PLGA composites.

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Vibrational Modes of Nano-Template Viruses
Alexander A. Balandin and Vladimir A. Fonoberov

The rod-shaped viruses such as TMV and M13 bacteriophage have been recently proposed as nano-templates for chemical self-assembly of nanoelectronic circuits. In this paper we report results of our investigation of the low-frequency vibrations in such viruses immersed in air and water. We analyze the damping of vibrations in water and discuss application of the micro-Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of the virus-based self-assembly of nanoelectronic circuits.

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Design Variations for An Aptamer-Based DNA Nanodevice
Stefan Beyer, Wendy U. Dittmer, and Friedrich C. Simmel

Aptamers are promising components of DNA nanodevices. In this article, a variety of switchable DNA aptamers are investigated which can bind or release the protein thrombin upon instruction. The device performance is strongly influenced by sequence extensions and dye labeling. A doubly labeled aptamer device is operated as a switchable molecular beacon which recognizes thrombin. Extensions on the 3' end destroy the binding capabilities of the devices.

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Ultra-Sensitive Detection of Integrin av ß3 Using a Generic Optical Bionanosensor
Oliver Worsfold, Chikaho Toma, and Takako Nishiya

Biosensing Mechanism—In the presence of the target cell, the RGD ligands incorporated into the fluid bilayer membrane surface aggregate together. This causes a change in the fluorescence spectra due to FRET.

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Formation of Chitin Nanofibers by Supercritical Antisolvent
José F. Louvier-Hernández, Gabriel Luna-Bárcenas, Ranjit Thakur, and Ram B.Gupta

Chitin is dissolved in hexafluoroisopropanol solvent. This solution is then sprayed into supercritical carbon dioxide, which rapidly removes the solvent causing chitin to precipitate as nano-fibers.

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